Klasifikasi Nyeri Kepala


A. Primary Headache Disorders

1. Migraine

1.1 Migraine without aura
1.2 Migraine with aura
1.2.1                    Typical aura with migraine headache
1.2.2                    Typical aura with non-migraine headache
1.2.3                    Typical aura without headache
1.2.4                    Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM)
1.2.5                    Sporadic hemiplegic migraine
1.2.6                    Basilar-type migraine
1.3 Childhood periodic syndromes that are commonly precursors of migraine
1.3.1                    Cyclical vomiting
1.3.2                    Abdominal migraine
1.3.3                    Benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood
1.4 Retinal migraine
1.5 Complications of migraine
1.5.1                    Chronic migraine
1.5.2                    Status migrainosus
1.5.3                    Persistent aura without infarction
1.5.4                    Migrainous infarction
1.5.5                    Migraine-triggered seizures
1.6 Probable migraine
1.6.1                    Probable migraine without aura
1.6.2                    Probable migraine with aura
1.6.3                    Probable chronic migraine

2. Tension-type headache
2.1 Infrequent episodic tension-type headache
2.1.1                    Infrequent episodic tension-type headache associated with pericranial tenderness
2.1.2                    Infrequent episodic tension-type headache not associated with pericranial tenderness
2.2 Frequent episodic tension-type headache
2.2.1                    Frequent episodic tension-type headache associated with pericranial tenderness
2.2.2                    Frequent episodic tension-type headache not associated with pericranial tenderness
2.3 Chronic tension-type headache
2.3.1                    Chronic tension-type headache associated with pericranial tenderness
2.3.2                    Chronic tension-type headache not associated with pericranial tenderness
2.4 Probable tension-type headache
2.4.1                    Probable infrequent episodic tension-type headache
2.4.2                    Probable frequent episodic tension-type headache
2.4.3                    Probable chronic tension-type headache

3. Cluster headache and other trigeminal autonomic cephalgias
3.1 Cluster headache
3.1.1                    Episodic cluster headache
3.1.2                    Chronic cluster headache
3.2 Paroxysmal hemicranias
3.2.1                    Episodic paroxysmal hemicranias
3.2.2                    Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH)
3.3 Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT)
3.4 Probable trigeminal autonomic cephalgia
3.4.1                     Probable cluster headache
3.4.2                     Probable paroxysmal hemicranias
3.4.3                     Probable SUNCT

4. Other primary headache
4.1               Primary stabbing headache
Primary cough headache
Primary exertional headache
Primary headache associated with sexual activity
4.4.1                     Preorgasmic headache
4.4.2                     Orgasmic headache
4.5               Hypnic headache
Primary thunderclap headache
Hemicrania continua
New daily-persistent headache (NDPH)

B. Secondary Headache Disorders

5. Headache attributed to head and/or neck trauma
Acute post-traumatic headache
5.1.1                     Acute post-traumatic headache attributed to moderate or severe head injury
5.1.2                     Acute post-traumatic headache attributed to mild head injury
5.2 Chronic post-traumatic headache
5.2.1                     Chronic post-traumatic headache attributed to moderate or severe head injury
5.2.2                     Chronic post-traumatic headache attributed to mild head injur
5.3               Acute headache attributed to whiplash injury
Chronic headache attributed to whiplash injury
Headache attributed to traumatic intracranial haematoma
5.5.1                    Headache attributed to epidural haematoma
5.5.2                    Headache attributed to subdural haematoma
5.6 Headache attributed to other head and/or neck trauma
5.6.1                    Acute headache attributed to other head and/or neck trauma
5.6.2                    Chronic headache attributed to other head and/or neck trauma
5.7 Post-craniotomy headache
5.7.1                    Acute post-craniotomy headache
5.7.2                    Chronic post-craniotomy headache

6. Headache attributed to cranial or cervical vascular disorder
Headache attributed to ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack
6.1.1                    Headache attributed to ischaemic stroke (cerebral infarction)
6.1.2                    Headache attributed to transient ischaemic attack (TIA)
6.2 Headache attributed to non-traumatic intracranial haemorrhage
6.2.1                    Headache attributed to intracerebral haemorrhage
6.2.2                    Headache attributed to subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)
6.3 Headache attributed to unruptured vascular malformation
6.3.1                    Headache attributed to saccular aneurysm
6.3.2                    Headache attributed to arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
6.3.3                    Headache attributed to dural arteriovenous fistula
6.3.4                    Headache attributed to cavernous angioma
6.3.5                    Headache attributed to encephalotrigeminal or leptomeningeal angiomatosis (Sturge Weber syndrome)
6.4 Headache attributed to arteritis
6.4.1                    Headache attributed to giant cell arteritis (GCA)
6.4.2                    Headache attributed to primary central nervous system (CNS) angiitis
6.4.3                    Headache attributed to secondary central nervous system (CNS) angiitis
6.5 Carotid or vertebral artery pain
6.5.1                    Headache or facial or neck pain attributed to arterial dissection
6.5.2                    Post-endarterectomy headache
6.5.3                    Carotid angioplasty headache
6.5.4                    Headache attributed to intracranial endovascular procedures
6.5.5                    Angiography headache
6.6               Headache attributed to cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT)
Headache attributed to other intracranial vascular disorder
6.7.1                    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)
6.7.2                    Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
6.7.3                    Headache attributed to benign angiopathy of the central nervous system
6.7.4                    Headache attributed to pituitary apoplexy

7. Headache attributed to non-vascular intracranial disorder
Headache attributed to high cerebrospinal fluid pressure
7.1.1                    Headache attributed to idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)
7.1.2                    Headache attributed to intracranial hypertension secondary to metabolic, toxic or hormonal causes
7.1.3                    Headache attributed to intracranial hypertension secondary to hydrocephalus
7.2 Headache attributed to low cerebrospinal fluid pressure
7.2.1                    Post-dural puncture headache
7.2.2                    CSF fistula headache
7.2.3                    Headache attributed to spontaneous (or idiopathic) low CSF pressure
7.3 Headache attributed to non-infectious inflammatory disease
7.3.1                    Headache attributed to neurosarcoidosis
7.3.2                    Headache attributed to aseptic (non-infectious) meningitis
7.3.3                    Headache attributed to other non-infectious inflammatory disease
7.3.4                    Headache attributed to lymphocytic hypophysitis
7.4 Headache attributed to intracranial neoplasm
7.4.1                    Headache attributed to increased intracranial pressure or hydrocephalus caused by neoplasm
7.4.2                    Headache attributed directly to neoplasm
7.4.3                    Headache attributed to carcinomatous meningitis
7.4.4                    Headache attributed to hypothalamic or pituitary hyper- or hyposecretion
7.5               Headache attributed to intrathecal injection
Headache attributed to epileptic seizure
7.6.1                    Hemicrania epileptic
7.6.2                    Post-seizure headache
7.7               Headache attributed to Chiari malformation type I (CM1)
Syndrome of transient Headache and Neurological Deficits with cerebrospinal fluid Lymphocytosis (HaNDL)
Headache attributed to other non-vascular intracranial disorder

8. Headache attributed to a substance or its withdrawal
Headache induced by acute substance use or exposure
8.1.1                    Nitric oxide (NO) donor-induced headache                         Immediate NO donor-induced headache                         Delayed NO donor-headache
8.1.2                    Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor-induced headache
8.1.3                    Carbon monoxide-induced headache
8.1.4                     Alcohol-induced headache                          Immediate alcohol-induced headache                          Delayed alcohol-induced headache
8.1.5                    Headache induced by food components and additives                          Monosodium glutamate-induced headache
8.1.6                    Cocaine-induced headache
8.1.7                    Cannabis-induced headache
8.1.8                    Histamine-induced headache                         Immediate histamine-induced headache                         Delayed histamine-induced headache
8.1.9                    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-induced headache                         Immediate CGRP-induced headache                         Delayed CGRP-induced headache
8.1.10                  Headache as an acute adverse event attributed to medication used for other indications
8.1.11                   Headache attributed to other acute substance use or exposure
8.2 Medication-overuse headache (MOH)
8.2.1                    Ergotamine-overuse headache
8.2.2                    Triptan-overuse headache
8.2.3                    Analgesic-overuse headache
8.2.4                    Opioid-overuse headache
8.2.5                    Combination analgesic-overuse headache
8.2.6                    Medication-overuse headache attributed to combination of acute medications
8.2.7                    Headache attributed to other medication overuse
8.2.8                    Probable medication-overuse headache
8.3 Headache as an adverse event attributed to chronic medication
8.3.1                    Exogenous hormone-induced headache
8.4 Headache attributed to substance withdrawal
8.4.1                    Caffeine-withdrawal headache
8.4.2                    Opioid-withdrawal headache
8.4.3                    Oestrogen-withdrawal headache
8.4.4                    Headache attributed to withdrawal from chronic use of other substances

9. Headache attributed to infection
Headache attributed to intracranial infection
9.1.1                   Headache attributed to bacterial meningitis
9.1.2                   Headache attributed to lymphocytic meningitis
9.1.3                   Headache attributed to encephalitis
9.1.4                   Headache attributed to brain abscess
9.1.5                   Headache attributed to subdural empyema
9.2 Headache attributed to systemic infection
9.2.1                   Headache attributed to systemic bacterial infection
9.2.2                   Headache attributed to systemic viral infection
9.2.3                   Headache attributed to other systemic infection
9.3               Headache attributed to HIV/AIDS
Chronic post-infection headache
9.4.1                   Chronic post-bacterial meningitis headache

10. Headache attributed to disorder of homeostasis
Headache attributed to hypoxia and/or hypercapnia
10.1.1               High-altitude headache
10.1.2               Diving headache
10.1.3               Sleep apnoea headache
10.2           Dialysis headache
Headache attributed to arterial hypertension
10.3.1               Headache attributed to phaeochromocytoma
10.3.2               Headache attributed to hypertensive crisis without hypertensive encephalopathy
10.3.3               Headache attributed to hypertensive encephalopathy
10.3.4               Headache attributed to pre-eclampsia
10.3.5               Headache attributed to eclampsia
10.3.6               Headache attributed to acute pressor response to an exogenous agent
10.4           Headache attributed to hypothyroidism
Headache attributed to fasting
Cardiac cephalalgia
Headache attributed to other disorder of homoeostasis

11. Headache or facial pain attributed to disorder of cranium, neck, eyes, ears, nose, sinuses, teeth, mouth or other facial or cranial structures
Headache attributed to disorder of cranial bone
Headache attributed to disorder of neck
11.2.1                Cervicogenic headache
11.2.2                Headache attributed to retropharyngeal tendonitis
11.2.3                Headache attributed to craniocervical dystonia
11.3 Headache attributed to disorder of eyes
11.3.1                Headache attributed to acute glaucoma
11.3.2                Headache attributed to refractive errors
11.3.3                Headache attributed to heterophoria or heterotropia (latent or manifest squint)
11.3.4                Headache attributed to ocular inflammatory disorder
11.4           Headache attributed to disorder of ears
Headache attributed to rhinosinusitis
Headache attributed to disorder of teeth, jaws or related structures
Headache or facial pain attributed to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder
Headache attributed to other disorder of cranium, neck, eyes, ears, nose, sinuses, teeth, mouth or other facial or cervical structures

12. Headache attributed to psychiatric disorder
Headache attributed to somatisation disorder
Headache attributed to psychotic disorder

C. Cranial Neuralgias, Central and Primary Facial Pain and Other Headache

13. Cranial neuralgias and central causes of facial pain
Trigeminal neuralgia
13.1.1               Classical trigeminal neuralgia
13.1.2               Symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia
13.2 Glossopharyngeal neuralgia
13.2.1               Classical glossopharyngeal neuralgia
13.2.2               Symptomatic glossopharyngeal neuralgia
13.3           Nervus intermedius neuralgia
Superior laryngeal neuralgia
Nasociliary neuralgia
Supraorbital neuralgia
Other terminal branch neuralgias
Occipital neuralgia
Neck-tongue syndrome
External compression headache
Cold-stimulus headache
13.11.1             Headache attributed to external application of a cold stimulus
13.11.2             Headache attributed to ingestion or inhalation of a cold stimulus
13.12       Constant pain caused by compression, irritation or distortion of cranial nerves or upper cervical roots by structural lesions
Optic neuritis
Ocular diabetic neuropathy
Head or facial pain attributed to herpes zoster
13.15.1             Head or facial pain attributed to acute herpes zoster
13.15.2             Post-herpetic neuralgia
13.16       Tolosa-Hunt syndrome
Ophthalmoplegic “migraine”
Central causes of facial pain
13.18.1             Anaesthesia dolorosa
13.18.2             Central post-stroke pain
13.18.3             Facial pain attributed to multiple sclerosis
13.18.4             Persistent idiopathic facial pain
13.18.5             Burning mouth syndrome
13.19       Other cranial neuralgia or other centrally mediated facial pain

14. Other headache, cranial neuralgia, central or primary facial pain
Headache not elsewhere classified
Headache unspecified

Source: International Headache Society (HIS) – The International Classification of Headache Disorders 2nd Edition 1st Revision (May 2005)


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